Science

On this page you can find some science data on carbon disulfite and sulfur poisoning.

This is an excerpt from the Occupational Safety and Health Guideline of the United States Department of Labor on carbon disulfide:
“Signs and symptoms of exposure

  1. Acute exposure: Acute exposure to carbon disulfide vapor is irritating to the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes. Contact with the liquid can result in second- and third-degree burns. Skin absorption may result in localized degeneration of peripheral nerves. Acute exposure can result in systemic symptoms of dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, euphoria, convulsions, muscle weakness, sleeplessness, fatigue, nervousness, anorexia, blind spots, dilated pupils, psychosis, coma, and death.
  2. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to carbon disulfide may result in headache, polyneuritis, emotional disturbances, psychosis, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypertension, central scotoma, red-green color blindness, anorexia, weight loss, Parkinson- like syndrome, fatigue, anemia, blood and protein in the urine, and liver damage.

Summary of toxicology

  1. Effects on Animals: Carbon disulfide exposure by inhalation causes significant toxicity to the brain, spleen, liver, and testes, and irritation of the intestinal tract in experimental animals [ACGIH The oral LD(50) in rats is 3,188 mg/kg, and the 2-hour LC(50) in rats is 25 gm/m(3) [NIOSH 1991]. Animals repeatedly exposed to 37 ppm by inhalation showed significant toxic effects to the brain, spleen, liver, and testes, and irritation of the intestinal tract[ACGIH 1991]. Dogs exposed chronically to carbon disulfide showed behavioral changes, became aggressive, and developed uncontrolled movements [Klaasen 1986]. Central nervous system damage was reported on autopsy of cats and dogs exposed to 400 ppm carbon disulfide for 2 to 6 weeks [Klaasen 1986]. One of the factors affecting the toxicity of carbon disulfide in animals is the mineral content of the diet[ACGIH 1991]. A highly mineralized diet provides significant protection from the neurological effects of carbon disulfide. Reproductivity toxicity, embryotoxicity, and developmental effects were found after pregnant rats were exposed to approximately 33 ppm mg/m(3)) for 8 hours ()on days 1 to 21 of gestation [NIOSH 1991]. Topical application of carbon disulfide resulted in retinal damage and optic nerve damage [Grant 1986].
  2. Effects on Humans: The adverse effects in humans of exposure to carbon disulfide include coronary heart disease, organic brain damage, peripheral nervous system decrements, neurobehavioral dysfunction, and ocular and auditory effects [Klaasen 1986]. Exposure to 4,800 ppm for minutes results in coma and may cause death [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Acute exposure to 160 to 230 ppm generally does not produce symptoms, and exposure to 320 to 390 ppm is bearable for several hours before exposed workers develop headaches and feelings of malaise [Parmeggiani Exposure to 1,150 ppm results in giddiness and exposure to to 3,200 ppm causes light intoxication with paresthesias and irregular breathing after one-half to 1 hour of exposure [Parmeggiani Carbon disulfide is also a severe irritant of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; contact with this substance may cause blistering and second- and third-degree burns. Skin sensitization may also occur[Genium 1992]. Exposure by inhalation or skin absorption may also result in headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, euphoria, convulsions, muscle weakness, and possibly death by respiratory system failure [Genium 1992]. Chronic exposure to carbon disulfide causes a number of ocular changes (blind spot enlargement, contraction of peripheral field, and a decreased ability to see in the dark), gastrointestinal disturbances, and kidney and liver damage [Amdur Neurological changes have caused polyneuritis, which has been estimated to have occurred in 88 percent of individuals who were chronically exposed to carbon disulfide prior to the 1950s [Klaasen Neurological damage is manifested as cranial nerve damage, paresthesias, muscle weakness, and Parkinson-like symptoms [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease are associated with exposure to carbon disulfide [Hathaway et al. 1991]. Epidemiological studies have shown that viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide are at significantly increased risk of coronary heart disease [Hathaway et al. 1991].”

To see the original document visit United States Department of Labor at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/carbondisulfide/recognition.html

Sulfer Poisoning:

“Sulphur is a multivalent non-metal, abundant, tasteless and odourless. In its native form sulphur is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature it occurs as the pure element or as sulphide and sulphate minerals. Although sulphur is infamous for its smell, frequently compared to rotten eggs, that odour is actually characteristic of hydrogen sulphide (H2S).
The crystallography of sulphur is complex. Depending on the specific conditions, sulphur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures.Applications

The major derivative of sulphur is sulphuric acid (H2SO4), one of the most important elements used as an industrial raw material.
Sulphur is also used in batteries, detergents, fungicides, manufacture of fertilizers, gun powder, matches and fireworks. Other applications are making corrosion-resistant concrete which has great strength and is frost resistant, for solvents and in a host of other products of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

Sulphur in the environment

Life on Earth may have been possible [only] because of sulphur. Conditions in the early seas were such that simple chemical reactions could generate the range of amino acids that are the building blocks of life.

Sulphur occurs naturally near volcanoes. Native sulphur occurs naturally as massive deposits in Texas and Louisiana in the USA. Many sulphide minerals are known: pyrite and marcaiste are iron sulphide ; stibnite is antimony sulphide; galena is lead sulphide; cinnabar is mercury sulphide and sphalerite is zinc sulphide. Other, more important, sulphide ores are chalcopyrite, bornite, penlandite, millerite and molybdenite.
The chief source of sulphur for industry is the hydrogen sulphide of natural gas, Canada is the main producer.  (Full Article)

_______________________
Source: Sulphur, Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V.

Rotterdamseweg 402 M
2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands

Health effects of sulphur

All living things need sulphur. It is especially important for humans because it is part of the amino acid methionine, which is an absolute dietary requirement for us. The amino acid cysteine also contains sulphur. The average person takes in around 900 mg of sulphur per day, mainly in the form of protein.

Elemental sulphur is not toxic, but many simple sulphur derivates are, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S).

Sulphur can be found commonly in nature as sulphides. During several processes sulphur bonds are added to the environment that are damaging to animals, as well as humans. These damaging sulphur bonds are also shaped in nature during various reactions, mostly when substances that are not naturally present have already been added. They are unwanted because of their unpleasant smells and are often highly toxic.

Globally, sulphuric substances can have the following effects on human health:

– Neurological effects and behavioural changes
– Disturbance of blood circulation
– Heart damage
– Effects on eyes and eyesight
– Reproductive failure
– Damage to immune systems
– Stomach and gastrointestinal disorder
– Damage to liver and kidney functions
– Hearing defects
– Disturbance of the hormonal metabolism
– Dermatological effects
– Suffocation and lung embolism

(Full Article)

_______________________
Source: Sulphur, Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V.

Rotterdamseweg 402 M
2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands

Effects of sulphur on the environment

Sulphur can be found in the air in many different forms. It can cause irritations of the eyes and the throat with animals, when the uptake takes place through inhalation of sulphur in the gaseous phase. Sulphur is applied in industries widely and emitted to air, due to the limited possibilities of destruction of the sulphur bonds that are applied.

The damaging effects of sulphur with animals are mostly brain damage, through malfunctioning of the hypothalamus, and damage to the nervous system.

Laboratory tests with test animals have indicated that sulphur can cause serious vascular damage in veins of the brains, the heart and the kidneys. These tests have also indicated that certain forms of sulphur can cause foetal damage and congenital effects. Mothers can even carry sulphur poisoning over to their children through the mother’s milk.

Finally, sulphur can damage the internal enzyme systems of animals.

(Full Article)

_______________________
Source: Sulphur, Lenntech Water treatment & air purification Holding B.V.

Rotterdamseweg 402 M
2629 HH Delft, The Netherlands”

You may visit the original resource at http://www.folc.ca/sulphur_storage/sulphur_poisoning.htm

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